Model of Expectancy in an Organization
BUS 375: Employee Training
The Model of Expectant Theory
The model of expectant theory was created by a Canadian Professor named Victor Vroom, suggests that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. This paper will discuss Vroom’s expectant theory along with how it affects the staffing process within an organization. It will also describe the motivational force formula along with how the model measures motivation. Lastly, it will explain how the measure of valence can aid in the staffing issues encountered in an organization.
Vroom emphasized that an employee’s performance is based on several factors such as their personality, skills, knowledge, experience, and their abilities. This also includes their efforts and performances which are determined by their motivation. It is basically the belief that the efforts will produce the anticipated goals. Employees can be motivated within the workplace if they know that their favorable performance will be rewarded at the end of the rating period thereby satisfying a personal need.
Additionally, if the employee has a desire to satisfy a need, it could make the effort worthwhile. Managers who get to know their employees and motivate them will often see more productivity in their performance. The best managers are those who motivate and encourage their employees to be successful at their job (Lipman, 2016). Managers should also ensure that they fulfill promises of rewards made to employees. A person's attitude toward an occurrence or an outcome depends on their perceptions and how they perceive that outcome is related to the occurrence of other consequences.
The model theory based on Vroom is that motivation equates to the combination of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy. Basically it is motivation= expectancy x instrumentality x valence. This model measures motivation characterized by voluntary behavior, focusing on processes that affect behavior such as energized effort, effort direction and effort persistence. It is also an individual phenomenon which means that motivation is relative to the individual. Each person will react differently as every individual is motivated in different ways by different elements. It is therefore necessary to understand employees based on their various needs. According to the formula when all three elements are low, the employees’ motivation is also low. Even if there could be a moderate level in the three elements, the motivation could still be low.
Valence is the value attached to the rewards set by the employees. Employees who prefer not to accomplish certain outcomes are less motivated in the workplace. Management should find ways to encourage their employees to show they are valued and appreciated which would increase their morale and essentially motivate them to be more productive within the workplace. This will aid in company retention, increased work performances, and possibly interest potential workers to the organization.
Vrooms model theory can help an organization to motivate it’s employees and increase their work performances. Through rewards and recognitions management can ensure that promises are not left empty handed which will foster a better working environment for all employees, including management.
Kopp, D. M. (2014). Human resource development: Performance improvement through learning [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://ashford.content.edu
Lipman, V. (2016, February 13). The Best Managers Motivate . Retrieved from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/victorlipman/2016/02/13/the-best-managers-motivate/#44b3a0f277d5
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