Sample Assignment Indigenous tourism in Australia

Report prposing a healthy and proper planning process for indigenous tourism in Australia

Position Statement

The case of Indigenous Tourism represents a branch or sector of the overall industry. This industry appeals top visitors, in a large way, who want to explore different and attractive parts of the world. There are frankly many different and varied suppositions and projections existing with regards to tourism as a whole. This may involve something natural and aesthetic, interesting or challenging, as well as something that speaks to a sense of wonder in one’s own mind(Buultjens, Gale and White 2010). But, Indigenous Tourism is one specific part that directly involves people, as well as anthropological elements that surround them. This is obviously a far too broad definition, but this form of tourism do exists in a highly widespread and incomprehensive fashion. Therefore, taking consideration of the overall case of Indigenous Tourism in Australia would require a great deal of understanding of the people, as well as their culture and history (Weaver 2010). It should connect with the demands of contemporary tourism operators.

This research is done for the sake of preparing a plan or a process that specifically analyzes the issues and problems surrounding Indigenous tourism in Australia. The report is done so as to focus a consequential interest that will eventually result in it being adopted as a policy standard. In terms of the sector in the tourism industry, it is safe to say that there are many different parties and groups who hold a stake regarding this issue (Whitford and Ruhanen 2016). Therefore, this report shall try to inform and set a benchmark on those pertinent issues all across the board. The researcher and the organization, Southern Cross University, wants to impress upon maximum benefits across every significant level of the social order. Reflecting and investigating the issue at hand will certainly lead to a positive result that is brought about by transformation and change.

The objectives shall specifically try to explore why there is a great deal of disinterest or demand for the Indigenous Tourism in Australia. The policies at play delineate all the significant observances and practices of the indigenous group spread all across the country. These people need to safeguard their culture, natural habitat, practices and communication with the more ‘civilized’ aspects of society (Vermeersch, Sanders and Willson, 2016). Therefore, nothing related to tourism or any other commercial sector should specifically cause harm or damage to their concerns in any possible way. Moreover, it should also focus upon generating maximum interest since the Indigenous people also need to be in contact with the institutions and parties at large in civilized society so that there is maximum level of understanding and empathy between all parties.

Background Context

There is simply far too many considerations to be made in terms of the proper understanding of the context, as well as finding ways on how to best capitalize upon it. In this report, a multitude of factors and information coalesce together to give rise to the sense of holistic understanding and awareness about the topic under question (Ruhanen, Whitford and McLennan 2013). Clearly, one can view that there are two aspects of the issue. One involves the apparent disinterest showcased by tourists in terms of partaking and exploring the offerings of the Indigenous Tourism sector. The other is the consideration of the indigenous tribes themselves (Abascal, Fluker and Jiang 2016). These people have undergone several challenges in this modern age, and the damages they have suffered for centuries have only been recently identified. So, the prospect of tourism makes the predicament unfavorable to their apparent concerns and ideals. As this particular section unfolds, however, one may see that the entire prospect is not as one dimensional or direct as one may imagine.

The Demand Gap for Indigenous Tourism

The tourism industry is, above all, a medium of commerce where a number of different types of parties participate in very large numbers. This means that it will be guided by the prevalent rules and laws of business, and shall impress upon a very effective realization when everything is not working out. In the case of Indigenous Tourism, that is quite true, and it brings forward the discussion of how the gap between demand and supply is so wide that under all circumstances the operators and agencies facilitating face a great deal of problems that have immense magnitude or importance (Plummer and Fennell 2009). Overall, the considerations of tourism operators generally state that “…international tourists see Indigenous experiences as second only to Sydney attractions, yet less than 5% of international tourists cite Indigenous experiences as an activity they want to experience…” (Ruhanen, Whitford and McLennan, 2013, pg. 3). This certainly indicates that there is a wide gap in understanding by the operators.

Moreover, it remains true even for domestic tourists too, but the most interesting report that the literature showcases is the fact that less than 25% of the same are even aware about Indigenous Tourism (Abascal, Fluker and Jiang 2016). In the case of international tourists, the percentage, as expected, is even lower, and it offers a great divide that needs to be filled up (Ruhanen, Whitford and McLennan 2013). If it is not, then the entire prospect of sustainability of the sector can be brought under questioning.

The Case for Chinese Tourist Volume

It is essential to note that a very significant volume of the international tourists flowing into Australia come from China. However, these tourists overwhelmingly select and follow through with respect to a stereotypical experience with regards to outdoor/nature activities (Ruhanen, Whitford and McLennan 2015). Moreover, the misunderstanding of tour operators is also apparent, and brings to the forefront, all possible discussions that may happen under the case of showing interest, while actually also being sufficient enough to make those tourists participate. In the survey by Ruhanen, Whitford and McLennan (2013), it revealed that only 6% of the Chinese population actually considered as a premier tourist activity in their mind. However, it is also essential to note that operators, especially those who are inbound from China, relate that there is a greater form of interest and participation probability if proper promotion and awareness programs are actuated. In addition to this, there is also a great deal of consideration to place in terms of appeal through the way of activities(Ruhanen, Whitford and McLennan 2015). In such a case if a tourist is individually interested in an Indigenous activity or experience, then that particular individual will undertake the proposed activity or experience quite actively.

Issues Specific to the Supplier

It is greatly important to note and highlight the fact that that the agencies and operators who make Indigenous Tourism in Australia possible in the first place. There is a significant history and a linear development of culture pervading all across the existence of the various groups that exist all throughout the continent (Peters and Higgins-Desbiolles 2012). In terms of safeguarding their civil rights, there are a number of observances that suppliers must focus upon. This undeniably curtails the possibility of appeal among tourists, as comfort, access, interest and communication all become an issue. In addition, they also need to satisfactorily bring to the forefront all possibilities there could be with regards to appropriately satisfy the demand criteria of tourists (Pomering, 2013). The overall case mainly focuses upon bringing a commodity sense into the entire discussion of how suppliers are going to satisfy tourists. In the increasing possibility of rise in competition can also present a macro-barrier that would not be easy to bypass under any perspective.

The Issue of Sustainability

Indigenous Tourism is a variation of Community-Based Tourism (CBT) with major socio-economic factors that are unique at every instance. Looking at it from the outside, the prospect can give way to severe increase in costs for sourcing, personnel that need to work in remote locations, training of Indigenous groups in large numbers, as well as other issues prevalent in the development aspect all give rise to the situation that people are facing now (Buultjens, Gale and White 2010). Moreover, government regulations have traditionally aimed at curtailing even the slightest case of intervention with a potential for harm and damage. Thus, set-up and operational costs bring to the forefront a clashing convergence of perspectives of various parties all working together in safeguarding their own concerns (Strickland-Munro and Moore 2013). These concerns cannot be largely ignored, given the apparent baseline nature of the issue at large.

Thus, one may see that the contextual information at play in the case of operating the entirety of Indigenous Tourism Sector in Australia relates an interconnected set of criteria that do not particularly compromise under any possible circumstance (Gorman, Griffiths and Whitehead, 2006). In addition to this, the lack of familiarity with the availability itself at large brings the question of proper sustainability to a critical stage. It is apparent that major transformation in the policy framework is required to transform the essence and perception of the sector as a whole.

Statement of Needs

When talking about needs, it is essential to recognize that there is no uniformity under the most realistic perspectives. Now, the objective of the proposed plan or policy is to explore the needs of all the parties that are somehow involved in this entire predicament. It may involve the government, the operators, the actual tourists and every other stakeholder associated with the proposition of making the tourism experience indigenous(Carr, Ruhanen and Whitford 2016). Therefore, there is a need to look at all possible needs that these parties may have in terms of the proposed plan, and by extension, these needs shall contribute to the entire formation and finalization of the plan too.

The Government

The Government of Australia is the final and most essential party involved, which is going to have a say whether the proposed plan is actuated or not. Therefore, its concerns extend to the overall factors that pervade the issue on the whole because it must appeal to, and try satisfying all of the parties involved in the plan (Butler and Hinch, 2007). But, some baseline needs of the Australian Government are identifiable. Protection of the indigenous groups under all perspectives is obviously one of them, and this involves safeguarding their cultural, sociological, natural, political and economic state. These aspects are significant in terms of the discussion of safeguarding the interests of the indigenous groups, as well as specific individuals (Nielsen and Wilson 2012). As a result, it will highlight the absolute essentiality at play when it comes to safeguarding the interests of all Indigenous people under no truncated measures.

But, it is also essential to recognize that there are other factors at play too. The Government is also taking part because Indigenous Tourism also has a significant role to play in maintaining the economy with respect to the revenue it is bringing, as well as the costs involved on the whole (Carr, Ruhanen and Whitford 2016). In addition to this, it must also appeal to its constituents in terms of focusing upon other aspects related to developments and advancement in remote locations where indigenous groups still reside. To be specific, Government needs are similarly widespread and complex as the justification and contexts in the previous sections of this report actually say they are.

Indigenous Groups

The essential position of the Indigenous Groups dispersed throughout Australia must also not be denied, as they are central to the entire proposition at large. When discussing about the overall effects at play, it is essential to recognize their history dating back to pre-historic ages, and their continued development, as well as colonization and decline in the face of invading forces(Jaafar and Rasoolimanesh 2015). The loss of these groups have been too great and significant to be able to relate them in terms of just numbers and statistics. Therefore, the plan must recognize their volition in participating, as well as to what extent they will must be considered (Mkono 2016). Their inherent cultural state will also determine the commodities and services apparent in the discussion of the entire case of Indigenous Tourism.

Tourists

Tourists fall directly on the other side of this entire discussion. They are the actual clients and customers who expect their demands to be met in terms of what is being offered by the proposition of Indigenous Tourism. There are several unique needs identified across different segments of the tourist crowd, mainly done by considering them to be from outside of the country or inside (Fuller, Buultjens and Cummings 2005). In both cases, awareness is a major issue wherein people do not just know about the possibility of undertaking such a trip. But, there also seems to be a great debate surrounding the case whether awareness can really outmatch other factors like inauthentic experience, high costs, problems of accessibility and the lack of resources. General plain disinterest is a complex set of factors, and the plan in question must focus on how to best deal with it. Moreover, there is also a significant issue of negative perception in the media with respect to tourists not taking up the option as well.

For Businesses

The Needs statement was partially tackled in the previous section, at least from the perspective of the suppliers. But, there are other factors to be considered as well. Not deriving a great deal of profit on an upwards curve can result in a variety of cases, and since all other stakeholders associated above have a stake in it, businesses must primarily look to satisfy them as well (Butler and Hinch, 2007). Moreover, it has its own specific subsets of stakeholders who must consider the prospect of the plan in various different perspectives available at large (Jaafar and Rasoolimanesh 2015). Thus, the case of needs for businesses is both guided by profit, as well as impacted upon by many other forces separate from the same.

These are, therefore, the prevalent needs apparent towards the discussion of the policy plan that can make Indigenous Tourism feasible. In addition to this, it also focuses upon bringing an affirmative sense of sustainability in the entire discussion, resulting in the scenarios that is advantageous to all possible participants mentioned above. But, considering the overall impact of the state of the plan, it shall, therefore, be reasonable to discuss the ways in which proper and effective actuation becomes possible.

Scope of the Proposed Plan

There is also a significant need to consider and highlight how the plan is going to come to fruition. This shall include possible policy approaches, as well as instruments that might be applicable to actually flesh out the plan under practical and effective means.

Marketing

There obviously needs to be a proper overhaul of the state of marketing that exists for Indigenous Tourism in Australia. If there is any indication, it is apparent that overwhelming section of the tourist crowds are not even aware about the possibility of an Indigenous Tourism (Espinosa Abascal, Fluker and Jiang 2015). This lack of awareness must be countered in an effective fashion, which shall completely focus on realizing the fact that the proposition of such a mode of tourism is something that has innate value and attractiveness at large.

Increase in Disseminating Knowledge

Knowledge is also a significant case as to why the sector is in the state it is at this particular moment. There is a great deal of knowledge that must be explored by tourist experts, and as a result, it shall help in capitalizing on all aspects of the business proposition, and not just marketing (Harvey Lemelin et al., 2013). Knowledge is something that must specifically point towards the realization of all types of goals, and the uptake shall continuously improve and make the sector more sophisticated and able to satisfy demands of clients.

Greater Incentives for Businesses

It is apparent that the businesses are curtailed because of the fact that they must endure a lot in the way of costs should they enter into the fray of Indigenous Tourism in Australia. What the main benefit of this kind of proposition actually presents is the possibility of increase in the availability of channels (Butler and Hinch, 2007). Increase in channels can themselves bring a lot of costs down, and this seems to be the apparent objective at play in terms of making sound business decisions.

Educational Campaigns

The Government should put the instrument of knowledge dissemination to most effective use by utilizing all possibilities there could be with regards to studying under education programs. This should extend to schools, colleges and universities where an entire stream of Indigenous studies can become a consequential factor under the Humanities lines of study (Fuller, Buultjens and Cummings 2005). The students who specialize in such a subjects can obviously contribute to a great extent when they need to become professionals and have a particular occupation for earning.

Better Assessment Formats

Another major factor in play is the idea of operators implementing a demand and supply approach towards the entire predicament. There are numerous scenarios when circumstances do not explain how the exactly work. Therefore, a robust development plan for the constituents of the industry must be put into place for motivating them to partake in it more vigorously.

Addressing Better Options for the Indigenous People

It is apparent that such transformations may put an unprecedented and significant burden upon the state of Indigenous population themselves. Therefore, the policy plan must also explore some sort of approach or criteria that both considers and undertakes a great deal of consideration to facilitate their cause as wellEspinosa (Abascal, Fluker and Jiang 2015). It shall ensure the best possible results for everyone involved.

The Proposed Planning Process

The plan under question must have three distinct aspects that will certainly relate to the apparent concerns at play. The process shall begin with the overall consideration of analyzing aspects of the Indigenous Tourism prevalent at present. These shall specifically identify actual and data-based factors that needs change, improvement or complete overhaul (Walker and Moscardo 2016). In terms of specifically delineating the cases of improvement, there needs to be a great deal of consideration for continuous and specific changes at specific intervals of time. It shall specifically state in a separate bill to introduce in accordance with the specific requirements at any given point in time.

Consultation

Consultation shall specifically focus upon bringing focus into the pertinent discussion by a specific government-sponsored organization that will involve both members of the sector, as well as recognized individuals from the Travel and Tourism sector of the government (Whitford and Ruhanen 2010). This consultation aspect shall first consider all the necessary and imperative points of concern at play. Then, it shall take all necessary to protect and safeguard the rights and all points of concern for the Indigenous Population.

Implementation

Implementing specific aspects of the plan may vary. Primarily, the organization should look to implement the plan at a given point of time with the help of effective legislation that is significant to the entire question about the state of the sector(Walker and Moscardo 2016). Secondarily, it shall also focus in facilitating different aspects of trade and commerce to favor the plan at large. It shall also implement several checks and processes to determine whether everything across the country is proceeding as they have been planned.

Review

The Review process shall be derived from the checks and actual processes that shall consider the scenario over information derived from all stakeholders(Walker and Moscardo 2016). It shall specifically address factors that shall be implemented in the next iteration of the planning process as apparent from the entire arrangement.

Reference List

Abascal, TE, Fluker, M and Jiang, M 2016,‘Domestic demand for Indigenous tourism in Australia: understanding intention to participate,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 1350-1368.

Butler, R and Hinch, T eds. 2007, Tourism and indigenous peoples: Issues and implications, Routledge.

Buultjens, J, Gale, D and White, NE 2010,‘Synergies between Australian indigenous tourism and ecotourism: possibilities and problems for future development,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 18, no. 4, 497-513.

Carr, A, Ruhanen, L and Whitford, M 2016,‘Indigenous peoples and tourism: the challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 1067-1079.

Espinosa Abascal, T, Fluker, M and Jiang, M 2015,‘Domestic demand for Indigenous tourism in Australia: Understanding motivations, barriers, and implications for future development,’ Journal of Heritage tourism, vol. 10, no. 1, 1-20.

Fuller, D, Buultjens, J and Cummings, E 2005,‘Ecotourism and indigenous micro-enterprise formation in northern Australia opportunities and constraints,’ Tourism Management, vol. 26, no. 6, 891-904.

Gorman, JT, Griffiths, AD and Whitehead, PJ 2006,‘An analysis of the use of plant products for commerce in remote Aboriginal communities of northern Australia,’ Economic Botany, vol. 60, no. 4, 362-373.

Harvey Lemelin, R, Powys Whyte, K, Johansen, K, Higgins Desbiolles, F, Wilson, C and Hemming, S 2013,‘Conflicts, battlefields, indigenous peoples and tourism: addressing dissonant heritage in warfare tourism in Australia and North America in the twenty-first century,’ International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 7, no. 3, 257-271.

Jaafar, M and Rasoolimanesh, SM 2015,‘Tourism growth and entrepreneurship: Empirical analysis of development of rural highlands,’ Tourism Management Perspectives, vol. 14, 17-24.

Mkono, M 2016,‘Sustainability and Indigenous tourism insights from social media: worldview differences, cultural friction and negotiation,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 1315-1330.

Nielsen, N and Wilson, E 2012,‘From invisible to indigenous-driven: A critical typology of research in indigenous tourism,’ Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 19, no. 1, 67-75.

Peters, A and Higgins-Desbiolles, F 2012,‘De-marginalising tourism research: Indigenous Australians as tourists,’ Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 19.

Pomering, A 2013,‘Indigenous identity in the nation brand: tension and inconsistency in a nation's tourism advertising campaigns,’ Corporate Reputation Review, vol. 16, no. 1, 66-79.

Plummer, R. and Fennell, DA 2009,‘Managing protected areas for sustainable tourism: prospects for adaptive co-management,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 17, no. 2, 149-168.

Ruhanen, L, Whitford, M and McLennan, CL 2013,‘Demand and supply issues in Indigenous tourism: A gap analysis,’ Canberra: Indigenous Business Australia, viewed 11 Sep 2019, <www.iba.gov.au/wp-

content/uploads/2013/03/20130304ResearchReport_Demand-and-Supply-Issues-in-

Indigenous-Tourism-A-Gap-Analysis-Synopsis.pdf>.

Ruhanen, L, Whitford, M and McLennan, CL 2015,‘Indigenous tourism in Australia: Time for a reality check,’ Tourism Management, vol. 48, 73-83.

Strickland-Munro, J and Moore, S 2013,‘Indigenous involvement and benefits from tourism in protected areas: a study of Purnululu National Park and Warmun Community, Australia,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 21, no. 1, 26-41.

Vermeersch, L, Sanders, D and Willson, G, 2016,‘Generation Y: Indigenous tourism interests and environmental values,’ Journal of Ecotourism, vol. 15, no. 2, 184-198.

Walker, K and Moscardo, G 2016,‘Moving beyond sense of place to care of place: the role of Indigenous values and interpretation in promoting transformative change in tourists' place images and personal values,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, 1243-1261.

Weaver, D 2010,‘Indigenous tourism stages and their implications for sustainability,’ Journal of sustainable tourism, vol. 18, no. 1, 43-60.

Whitford, MM and Ruhanen, LM 2010,‘Australian indigenous tourism policy: practical and sustainable policies?’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 18, no. 4, 475-496.

Whitford, M and Ruhanen, L 2016,‘Indigenous tourism research, past and present: where to from here?’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9,1080-1099.