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Pathogenesis Assignment question with answer

  • Question 1

When empty, the stomach's volume is only about ____ ml, but it can stretch to hold more than ______ ml.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

50, 1000

  • Question 2

What is the definition of Pathogenesis?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

The development of morbid conditions of disease; more specifically the cellular events and reactions and other pathological mechanisms occurring in the development of disease.

  • Question 3

The primary complication with______ is aspiration.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Dysphagia

  • Question 4

Celiac Disease is caused by all the following except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Peanuts

  • Question 5

______ is the inflammation of the oral cavity classically associated with vitamin deficiencies.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Both b and c

  • Question 6

A reading of 140/90 mmHg is considered to be ____.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Hypertensive

  • Question 7

Flatulence is caused by?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

All the above

  • Question 8

Which factor(s) increase TG levels:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

All the above

  • Question 9

Genetics affects body weight and body composition by influencing factors such as: appetite, taste preferences, energy intake, resting energy expenditure, and body efficiency in storing energy.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 True

  • Question 10

________ is altering waves of relaxation and contraction of smooth muscle in the large intestine, lasting for several minutes.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Propulsion

  • Question 11

Which definition best describes a hiatal hernia:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Out pouching of the portion of the stomach into the chest through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.

  • Question 12

Accurately measuring weight and height is relatively____, _____, and equipment is _____available.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Easy; quick; readily

  • Question 13

It may take as long as _______ hours to complete the movement process through the small intestine.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

3 to 5

  • Question 14

Chief cells secrete:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Zymogen, pepsinogen, and gastric lipase

  • Question 15

0 out of 2 points

HDL is usually low in obesity and therefore the LDL:HDL ratio is low.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 16

0 out of 2 points

All the following are factors that increase HDL-C except:

Answer

   
   

Correct Answer:

Genetics

  • Question 17

Peptic ulcer is an eroded lesion in _______ resulting from a variety of causes, including H. pylori infection, NSAID, and stress.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Duodenal mucosa

  • Question 18

All of the following have one factor in common: a mucoid plaque that is contributing to the occlusion of the lumen of the artery.
* Sudden blockage of a coronary artery
* Hemorrhage into an atherosclerotic plaque
* Arterial spasm
* Increase in myocardial oxygen demand

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 19

Oral cavity secretions have all the following functions except:

Answer

Selected Answer:

Finish CHO digestion

Correct Answer:

Finish CHO digestion

  • Question 20

By themselves TG levels are associated with an increased risk of CVD. But, with other lipids, especially HDL-C, the association is not significant.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 21

A lab value of 200.9 mg/dL of total cholesterol is considered:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Borderline high

  • Question 22

What is the BMI range for Class 1 obesity?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

30-34.9

  • Question 23

Measurement of blood pressure is expressed using systolic ________ , _______over diastolic ________ , ________ .

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Higher number, maximum pressure; lower number, minimum pressure

  • Question 24

Metabolic Syndrome is a constellation of metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, HTN, and prothrombotic state.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 True

  • Question 25

____ is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder with an unknown etiology and is characterized by dryness of mucous membranes.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Sjogren's syndrome

  • Question 26

How many stools per day are considered “above normal” for most people?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

4

  • Question 27

Definition of obesity:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Obesity is an excess of adipose tissue or body fat. It can be defined as a proportion of body weight composed of adipose tissue (percent body fat) that exceeds a range that is considered healthy.

  • Question 28

If a patient has a LDL-C lab value of 128 mg/dl, what is the patients classification?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Near Desirable

  • Question 29

Gastric juice is composed of :

Answer

Selected Answer:

water, mucus, HCl, enzymes, and electrolytes

Correct Answer:

water, mucus, HCl, enzymes, and electrolytes

  • Question 30

0 out of 2 points

______ is a condition associated with Crohn's disease and chronic ulcerative colitis.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Both a and c

  • Question 31

Obesity is positively associated with all the following except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

All the above

  • Question 32

CHF begins with injury to the ________________or ______ ventricle hypertrophy that impairs overall function of the heart

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Heart, Left

  • Question 33

The term mural thrombi means:

Answer

Selected Answer:

Correct Answer:

This damage attracts platelets to the area, the platelets attach to the endothelium and form small clots termed mural thrombi

  • Question 34

The atmospheric pressure in the esophagus is lesser than in the stomach which prevents the reflux of gastric contents under normal conditions.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 35

_____ involves changes in the cells of the tissue that line the bottom of the esophagus; these esophageal cells become irritated when the contents of the stomach back up.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Barrett's esophagus

  • Question 36

As heart failure progresses, the heart compensates for poor cardiac output by increasing the force of contraction and thus increases in size and pumps less often causing fluid accumulation in the heart.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 37

The large intestine has villi or microvilli but does not have large pits and crypts similar to the crypts between villi in the small intestine.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 38

Constipation is defined as having less than three stools in a two week period while eating a high-residue diet.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 39

Protein-losing enteropathy is defined as:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

With excessive protein loss in stool, pts will experience reduced serum levels of protein and an increasing amount of peripheral edema due to the reduced oncotic pressure

  • Question 40

Release of gastric secretions happens in three phases. What phase results in the production of gastric secretions?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Cephalic phase

  • Question 41

0 out of 2 points

LDL-C is the primary transporter of cholesterol in the blood; total cholesterol and increased HDL-C are highly correlated.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 42

What term is used to describe occlusion of blood flow in non-coronary arteries?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

PAD

  • Question 43

 All the following conditions increase the likelihood of reflux except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

High-fat foods

  • Question 44

All the following are affected by cigarette smoke except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

All the above are affected by cigarette smoke

  • Question 45

_________ occurs as a result of another primary problem, such as renal disease or, other cardiovascular disease, endocrine disorders, or neurological disorders.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Secondary HTN

  • Question 46

Impaired fasting glucose is defined as blood glucose of _____mg/dL or higher.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

100 mg/dL

  • Question 47

The duodenum, jejunum, and ileum can perform each other's roles in both digestion and absorption at all times.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 48

Chyme from the gallbladder supplies emulsification needed for adequate lipid digestion.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 49

0 out of 2 points

Moderate obesity can raise the risk of DM by _____.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

10X

  • Question 50

0 out of 2 points

Gastric ulcers are not associated with excessive acid.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 True

   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
  • Question 1

The primary complication with______ is aspiration.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Dysphagia

  • Question 2

Chyme from the gallbladder supplies emulsification needed for adequate lipid digestion.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 3

Metabolic Syndrome is a constellation of metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, HTN, and prothrombotic state.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 True

  • Question 4

Define collateral circulation:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Necrotic cells are replaced by scar tissue and as blood flow to the tissues may be compromised for several years, a secondary pathway for blood flow may be developed from smaller vessels

  • Question 5

______ is the inflammation of the oral cavity classically associated with vitamin deficiencies.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Both b and c

  • Question 6

What transports endogenous lipid from the liver to the rest of the body.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Lipoproteins

  • Question 7

A skinfold assessment measures the ______ of the _______.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Thickness; subcutaneous fat

  • Question 8

A reading of 158/99 mmHg is consider what level of hypertension?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Stage 1 hypertension

  • Question 9

_________ occurs as a result of another primary problem, such as renal disease or, other cardiovascular disease, endocrine disorders, or neurological disorders.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Secondary HTN

  • Question 10

 All the following conditions increase the likelihood of reflux except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

High-fat foods

  • Question 11

0 out of 2 points

_________ stimulate(s) mucus production. Acetylcholine and ___________ stimulate HCL secretion by acting on parietal cells in the stomach.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Prostaglandins, Gastrin

  • Question 12

Measurement of blood pressure is expressed using systolic ________ , _______over diastolic ________ , ________ .

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Higher number, maximum pressure; lower number, minimum pressure

  • Question 13

Large hardened plaques are less likely to rupture than smaller plaques but create an occlusion of 70% of the lumen.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 True

  • Question 14

If a patient has a BMI of an 18.6, what are they considered?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Normal

  • Question 15

Short Bowel Syndrome has all the following complications except:

Answer

Selected Answer:

Slow GI transit time

Correct Answer:

Slow GI transit time

  • Question 16

What does BMI stand for?

Answer

Selected Answer:

Body Mass Index

Correct Answer:

Body Mass Index

  • Question 17

By themselves TG levels are associated with an increased risk of CVD. But, with other lipids, especially HDL-C, the association is not significant.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 18

____ is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder with an unknown etiology and is characterized by dryness of mucous membranes.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Sjogren's syndrome

  • Question 19

What is the definition of Etiology?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

The cause of disease.

  • Question 20

Celiac Disease is caused by all the following except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Peanuts

  • Question 21

Chronic Gastritis has two types, type A and type B. Which definitions best describe both of them.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Type A: Involves the fundus and is often associated with an autoimmune process which results in the formation of antibodies against the parietal cells; Type B: Results in atrophy of the gastric mucosa and is usually associated with an H. pylori infection

  • Question 22

Which definition best describes a hiatal hernia:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Out pouching of the portion of the stomach into the chest through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm.

  • Question 23

0 out of 2 points

______ is a condition associated with Crohn's disease and chronic ulcerative colitis.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Both a and c

  • Question 24

______ is an impairment of the ventricles' capacity to eject blood from the heart or to fill with blood .

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

CHF

  • Question 25

What word best describes a blood lipid profile that increases the risk of atherosclerotic development?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Dyslipidemia

  • Question 26

_____ involves changes in the cells of the tissue that line the bottom of the esophagus; these esophageal cells become irritated when the contents of the stomach back up.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Barrett's esophagus

  • Question 27

All the following are affected by cigarette smoke except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

All the above are affected by cigarette smoke

  • Question 28

All of the following have one factor in common: a mucoid plaque that is contributing to the occlusion of the lumen of the artery.
* Sudden blockage of a coronary artery
* Hemorrhage into an atherosclerotic plaque
* Arterial spasm
* Increase in myocardial oxygen demand

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 29

The large intestine has villi or microvilli but does not have large pits and crypts similar to the crypts between villi in the small intestine.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 30

Peptic ulcer is an eroded lesion in _______ resulting from a variety of causes, including H. pylori infection, NSAID, and stress.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Duodenal mucosa

  • Question 31

What assessment(s) can be used to measure body fat:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

A, B, and C

  • Question 32

Gastric juice is composed of :

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

water, mucus, HCl, enzymes, and electrolytes

  • Question 33

All the following conditions decrease lower esophageal pressure except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Lying flat after eating

  • Question 34

0 out of 2 points

Gastric ulcers are not associated with excessive acid.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 True

  • Question 35

If a patient has a BMI of 39.9 they are considered:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Stage 2 Obese

  • Question 36

0 out of 2 points

Flatulence is caused by?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

All the above

  • Question 37

0 out of 2 points

Increased TG and ________ HDL-C = ________in risk;
Increased TG and ________ HDL-C= ________ risk especially in women.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Increased HDL-C, No increase ; decreased HDL-C, increased, women

  • Question 38

How many stools per day are considered “above normal” for most people?

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

4

  • Question 39

Stable _______ is the substernal pain experienced when the workload on the heart is increased due to physical or emotional stress.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Angina

  • Question 40

Constipation is defined as having less than three stools in a two week period while eating a high-residue diet.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

 False

  • Question 41

Any of the four mechanisms can initiate an MI or angina in an individual with IHD except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

A long term blockage of a coronary artery

  • Question 42

Definition of obesity:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Obesity is an excess of adipose tissue or body fat. It can be defined as a proportion of body weight composed of adipose tissue (percent body fat) that exceeds a range that is considered healthy.

  • Question 43

IBS is abnormal stooling pattern associated with symptoms of intestinal dysfunction persisting for > ____ months.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

3

  • Question 44

0 out of 2 points

Angiotensin II alters BP by all of the following except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Causing the arterioles and veins to dilate

  • Question 45

All the following are clinical manifestations of congestive heart failure except:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Sleep apnea

  • Question 46

As chyme moves into the duodenum from the stomach, the hormones _______, _______, and _______ stimulate the release of pancreatic and gallbladder secretions.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

CCK, gastrin, and secretin

  • Question 47

________ produce mucus that serves to protect the epithelium and assist in the formation of feces.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Goblet cells

  • Question 48

_______ are products containing microorganisms manufactured and sold as food products and supplements.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Probiotics

  • Question 49

IHD is defined as:

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Characterized by inadequate blood supply to the heart

  • Question 50

Accurately measuring weight and height is relatively____, _____, and equipment is _____available.

Answer

   

Correct Answer:

Easy; quick; readily


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