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Simple And Fractional Distillation Report Form

Distillation Type Fractional Distillation SIMPLE AND FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION REPORT FORMp; Unknown Letter A

Literature Boiling point: Ethyl Acetate 76.5 1 Butyl acetate 125.0 2

Simple

Fractional

Temp. Range (°C)

Vol. (mL)

Temp. Range (°C)

Vol (mL)

77-82

4.9

70-75

5.1

82-87

1.9

75-80

3.8

87-92

1.8

80-85

-

92-97

1.8

85-90

-

97-102

0.4

90-95

1.3

102-107

0.8

95-100

0.01

107-117

0.8

100-105

0.2

117-122

3.9

105-110

0.5

122-127

1.8

110-115

2.5

127-132

0.7

-

-

Pot Residue

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2.6

Total Vol recovered

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18.2

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13.4

Initial Vol.

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20.0

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20.0

Percent recovery

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91%

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67 %

SIMPLE AND FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION REPORT FORM

For the Simple Distillation

Temp. range (°C)

Volume (mL)

Assumed to be pure EtOAc

77-82

4.9

Assumed to be a mixture of EtOAc/BuOAc

92-97

1.8

Assumed to be pure BuOAc

117-122

3.9

For the Fractional Distillation

Assumed to be pure EtOAc

70-75

5.1

Assumed to be a mixture of EtOAc/BuOAc

90-95

1.3

Assumed to be pure BuOAc

110-115

2.5

Show all calculations on a separate page Attach graphs as separate pages

Volume Percent Composition of Unknown

% Ethyl Acetate

% Butyl Acetate

Simple

24.5

19.5

Fractional

25.5

12.5

Ethyl Acetate 1

Butyl Acetate 2

Literature M.W. (g/mol)

88.11

116.16

Literature Density (g/mL)

0.902

0.880

Mole Percent Composition of Unknown

% Ethyl Acetate

% Butyl Acetate

Simple

5.0

3.0

Fractional

5.2

1.9

Citations:

  1. chemicalbook.com;CAS# 11-78-6, accessed Sept 26, 2018.

Introduction:

The purpose of the experiment was to utilize simple and fractional distillation to separate components of a sample of ethyl acetate/butyl acetate mixture to determine the volume and mole percent composition of the unknown mixture. The experiment was performed in groups of three; one group focused on simple distillation while the other group performed a fractional distillation on same unknown sample. Distillation occurred once unknown sample was heated to vapor and condensed to separate components of differing boiling points. A fractioning column was used in the fractional distillation. Sample fractions of unknown sample were collected in test tubes and the test tubes were changed after each 5 degree temperature change. Data was shared with simple distillation group to complete analysis of distillate. Assumption were made for collected sample based on the temperature range in which collected. Literature values of molecular weight, density and boiling point were used to determine volume and mole percent composition.

Results:

Simple distillation provided more consistency when fractions of sample were collected. Fractional distillation showed some temperature ranges with no fraction sample collected. In both distillations, temperature range of 75-80 °C had a higher volume of sample collected indicating a higher percent composition of that component. Based on literature boiling points, it was assumed that ethyl acetate contributed a higher percentage to the mixture. Fraction samples assumed to be a mixture of ethyl acetate and butyl acetate were collected at the 87-95 °C range. Fraction sample assumed to be butyl acetate collected at the 117-122 °C range in the simple distillation but found at the 110-115 °C in the fractional distillation. During the fractional distillation, a higher volume of unknown mixture was left in the round bottom flask compared to the simple distillation.

Discussion:

Analysis of results supported the assumption of a higher ethyl acetate percent composition based on the volume collected at the 75-80 °C temperature range. Ethyl acetate presented a 25 % composition in both simple and fractional distillation while butyl acetate was less than 20%. The mole composition of ethyl acetate was 5% in both distillation while the mole composition of butyl acetate varied from 1.9% to 3% in fractional and simple distillation, respectively. The simple distillation proved to be in distilling a higher volume while the fractional distillation method presented a more efficient separation of components. The assumed mixture of ethyl acetate and butyl acetate was more difficult to distinguish in the bar graph for the simple distillation. In conclusion, fractional distillation is more accurate and efficient if mixture consists of components with very different boiling points.


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