1. Ancient Greece (800 BCE–146 CE) or Rome (753 BCE-1453 CE) or China (7000 BCE-220 CE) or India (2700 BCE-510 CE)
· Ancient china during the Han Dynasty (7000 bce – 220 ce)
o The first Chinese dictionary was created
o The yellow turbans were a religious cult who attempted to start a civil war
o Paper was invented by Cai Lun. Bamboo, rags, fishing nets, hemp, mulberry tree bark, and water was mixed into a liquid then layed flat thus turning it into paper
o ARTIFACT: Silk Road – ancient trade route that linked China to the western world. China exchanged goods and ideas with Rome. Silk went westward and wools, silver, and gold went east. China received Christianity, Nestorian, and Buddhism via the silk road.
2. Early Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, or Christianity
o The Babylonian exile – The Babylonian empire conquered Jewish kingdoms and forced many Jews to move to other regions of the empire
o The Second Temple Period is when the temple of Solomon was rebuilt, and many writings would compile what is known as the Torah
o ARTIFACT: Temple of Solomon: The Babylonian empire was conquered by the Persians. Their ruler, Cyrus the Great, allowed the Jews to come back to their homeland. The Jews celebrated by rebuilding the Temple of Solomon that the Babylonians destroyed.
3. Early Christianity was birthed from Judaism which also believed in one god
1. The triumphs of Christianity refer to Christian belief overpowering allegedly false beliefs.
2. Constantine claimed he had dream of a cross and that is how he was able to defeat Maxentius and conquer all the Roman empire
3. Council of nicea – Constantine held a meeting to establish Jesus as a divine being
4. ARTIFACT: Nicene Creed produced by Constantine and the council. It contained a set of rules that all Christians had to abide by. It also established the idea that god was one in three manifestations as the father, son and holy ghost
4. Late Middle Ages (1000-1500 CE)
1. The Great Famine was due to lost crops because of heavy rain and the cold. This caused an inflation of food and many people couldn’t afford it.
2. The Hundred Years’ war between England, France and their allies were from 1337 to 1453
3. The Black Death caused by poor hygiene practices along with an infestation of fleas and rodents
4. ARTIFACT: Medieval iron swallowtail arrowhead used in war and for hunting
1. The crusades encountered advanced civilizations that helped Europe socially.
2. The fall of the Byzantine and Roman empire caused many scholars to move to Europe and they brung many classical texts with them
3. After the black death plague, many people began to focus and enjoy the present moment more, which spawned the humanist philosophy
4. ARTIFACT: The printing press was created by Johannes Gutenberg. It allowed the reproduction of texts. All print material could now be produced in mass quantity
7. Counter Reformation
1. The council of Trent began to meet to discuss the church’s dogma and discipline
2. The Jesuits was formed to convert people back to the catholic church
3. New churches were constructed
4. ARTIFACT: Index of Forbidden Books by church leaders. It consisted of 583 texts that practiced religious heresy. The purpose was to defend Christianity and re establish the catholic church authority.
9. Slave trade in Africa or British colonization of India
10. Realism (1837–1901)
11. Modernism (1902–1945)
12. Postmodernism (1946–Present)
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