Alcohols, Phenols and ethers Assignment Help
Talking in terms of chemistry, when an OH group, also known as a hydroxyl functional group is attached to a hydrocarbon in an Sp3 format, it is known as an alcohol. The term is said to be originated from the alcohol people usually know as a drug which contains a compound known as ethyl alcohol. The ol that is present after the name of the compound is one of the rules of the IUPAC, which states the compounds coming under the category of alcohol to be named as the same. One fun fact about the hydroxyl group attached to the end of hydrocarbon to make it an alcohol has an angle of 109 degrees between the hydrogen and the oxygen molecule. Talking about an ether, it is a compound that comes under the organic category and has a connecting oxygen that connects the two hydrocarbon or alkyl compounds together. The basic representation of an ether can be done in the form of R-O-R where R represents the organic compound and the O represents the oxygen. Talking about phenol, it is more commonly known as a phenolic acid because of the hydroxyl group attached to the aromatic benzene ring. The reason why it has an “ol” at the end of its name is due to the OH group that is attached to the aromatic hydrocarbon. One thing to be careful about such a compound is that since it has quite an acidic behaviour, one should be careful about this and students should perform experiments on the same under strict adult supervision. One of the strangest thing about phenol is that being acidic in nature, it is still soluble in water.
Types of alcohol, phenols and ethers: on the basis of the way they are oriented, the alcohol group can be divided into three forms namely primary alcohol, secondary alcohol and tertiary alcohol. The classification here is based on the number of carbon or the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the group. When the compound has one R attached to it, it is known as primary, the one with two is known as secondary and with three, the group falls under the tertiary category.
For the classification of ether, we know that between the oxygen atom, there are present two compounds. The classification is done on the basis of the compounds whether they are same or not. If the same, the ether falls under the category of symmetrical compounds and if not, the compound falls under the asymmetrical category.
Nomenclature of alcohol, phenols and ethers: while naming these kinds of compounds, some of the common rules that should be followed by the student are as follows:
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- The base of the name, that is also called as the stem of the name is to be named by the number of carbon atoms maximum in a chain without any branch and have been attached to the hydroxyl group is used. This need not be a straight line if the chain is maximum when the total is calculated via a branch.
- When an alcohol is present at the end of the chain, the suffix of “ol” is to be used while naming such a compound. Make sure that the suffix is the longest chain as explained in the above point.
- When there are more than one hydroxyl groups attached to the compound, there can be taken help of the prefixes like di, when there are two of them, or tri when there are three hydroxyl groups attached to the compound.
- Another important point to keep in mind, as discussed above that alcohol can be of three types, primary, secondary and tertiary so the students have to keep in mind what kind of compound they are dealing with while naming the same.
- While naming of ethers, one should be aware that an ether is a compound that has two hydrocarbons attached to both sides or to be precise it has to alkyles attached to it. The naming procedure starts with naming these two groups first, then finding the one that comes first when compared alphabetically, these two are then added, with the alphabetically advanced one coming in the front, the other coming at the end and adding a suffix of ether to it. One most common example for the same would be something like ethyl methyl ether. This is the name of one single compound, we can see that the one which starts with alphabetically compared chains and ends with an ether as the suffix.
- Sometimes the students get confused when the two chains attached to the ether are same. In that case, nothing is to worry about, just attach a “di” before the compound and it will be pretty correct. An example for such a compound will be diethyl ether where we can clearly indicate that the compound attached to the same is ethyl and it is common as there is a di attached as a prefix to the name of the compound.
Some other important points related to these compounds are that alcohol can be said to be an acid of lower acidic strength when compared to the acidic strength of the phenol and hence our sincere advice is to be careful around them.