Aromatic Compounds Assignment Help
We already know that the compounds that have long chains of atoms of only hydrogen and carbon are known as hydrocarbons and the branch of chemistry that deals with them are known as organic chemistry. In this article, we will be learning about the topic of aromatic compounds in the world of organic chemistry. For students who are confused with the name, these compounds are also called as the arenes or aromatics. If you are one of those students who have a difficulty understanding this specific concept of organic chemistry, then don’t worry because after reading this article, your concepts about aromatic compounds, their properties and their applications will be cleared because in this article we aregoing to have a detailed look on the aromatic compounds, a basic definition of them, the origin, various chemical and physical properties of these compounds like the famous bromination of benzene process and also the aromatic substitution that takes place in these compounds. We will also be discussing the phenomenon of resonance in the chemical organic compounds in this article.
Basic overview: aromatic compounds fall under the category of hydrocarbons in the organic chemistry. By this, we mean that they are chains of molecules formed by the combination of various hydrogen and carbon molecules in different types of fashion. It is very common among the students that they start imagining the benzene ring whenever someone mentions about aromatic compounds. Although benzene is an aromatic compound that was discovered in the early eighteenth century when some gas was being separated from the other aromatic compounds are much more than just a benzene ring that shows some of the very basic phenomena of resonance. Later when further discoveries were made, it was found that one of the very impressive properties of these aromatic compounds is that they possess greater tensile strengths as compared to their saturated counterparts. Some of the very basic studies related to the aromatic compounds revolved around the resin extraction from the balsam tree and it having a property of releasing a very sweet fragrance in the atmosphere, resulted in the compounds being given the name of aromatic compounds. Please note that since the most common aromatic compound in the organic chemistry world is the benzene, we will be talking about this in general and anywhere further in the article when we will be mentioning the properties of these compounds, we will be directly referring to benzene as our aromatic compound. Talking about the production of the same, in the very earlier years of the production of benzene, it was made by isolation of the very compound from a very complex compound that is known to glow in the dark. Later down the line, the production of the same was shifted from extraction to production from excessive carbon-containing compounds like coal and tar. Talking about the present-day scenario, benzene is produced with the help of petroleum and its by-products like petroleum jelly and more.
Reactions of benzene
In this paragraph, we aregoing to learn about some of the most basic and widely used reactions of an aromatic compound, benzene with various kinds of chemical compounds. The list of reactions with a brief description is as follows:
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- Alkylation reaction, Friedel crafts: This reaction says that it is possible to add an alkyl group to the benzene with the help of a substitution reaction in which one compound is removed and the remaining part of the same is added to the benzene ring. One of the most famous outputs of such an alkylation reaction is isopropylbenzene. This is a kind of hydrocarbon molecule that has a benzene ring attached to another hydrocarbon. Students should note that it is not always true that we only get just one product from a reaction. Most of the times, there are many kinds of outputs that are received when a reaction is done, but the reaction gets famous and is used for the compound that is generated the most out of that substitution process. For instance, if a certain reaction is producing x and y as outputs, but x quantity is produced more than the quantity, the reaction will be used for making x only. The by-product, that is y, in this case, will be discarded. The Friedel crafts reactions are also of two types. In this article, we will just be going through the names of the both and will not dive deep into the topic. The names are alkylation reaction and acylation reaction.
- Direction influence: this is the kind of reaction where the students need to predict the position of the incoming compound that is going to be attached to the benzene ring after the reaction is complete. We must know that there are three kinds of positions in a benzene ring, that are ortho position, para position and meta position. With the help of certain predefined rules, the students have to guess the product of the reaction by giving the name of the compound and the name of the very compound will be based on the location of the joining group out of the three possible positions. Students find such kinds of questions pretty easy but once the benzene gets two or more than two components being attached at the same time, that is when the complexity of the problem increases. To overcome the same, the students must remember the governing rules by heart.
- Ring activating groups: these are the groups that get attached to the benzene ring by the substitution process and are known to increase the number of electrons in a particular area. These type of compounds are known as electron activators for the sole purpose that they increase the electron density at a certain part of the benzene ring. The contrary to these chemical compounds are compounds known as the deactivators which as the name suggests decrease the number of electrons at a certain benzene position.
- Birch reaction for a benzene ring: before starting with this, students should have their concepts about the two types of electrons that are present in the aromatic compounds, that are the pi electrons and the sigma electrons. The process to remove the sigma electrons is much easier as compared to the pi electrons. With the help of birch reaction, one can easily remove the later as well. Birch reaction falls under the category of basic aromatic substitution reactions and is used to remove the unwanted component from the benzene. One of the other important things to understand in this reaction is that the kinetic energy of such a reaction is pretty high and most of the times, these kinds of reactions are not reversible hence should be taken care of before performing.
These are some of the most common types of reactions related to aromatic compounds that are in the curriculum of some of the top-notch colleges and schools across the globe. These will give you a basic understanding of the aromatic compounds and the way they react with different kinds of compounds. The reason that we arenot discussing the nomenclature of these compounds is that they have already been discussed in another article from the chemistry series. We hope that this article was able to add to your existing knowledge of aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons in general.