Cloning Assignment Help
In simple terms cloning designates duplicating. In biological sense, clone means genetically identical cell or organism.
The process of cloning has been possible due to the advancement in technology and researches taking place in laboratories. The effort of scientist and researchers have led to the idea and method of cloning that is now applied in different scientific areas. Cloning is basically of three different types:
- Gene cloning
- Reproductive cloning
- Therapeutic cloning
In this article a brief idea on cloning is introduced in order to allow students get the hint on this topic. Also the services provided by assignmenthippo.com is highlighted so that if students undergo any trouble in completion of their cloning assignment, they can choose cloning Assignment Help to get the doubts cleared.
Gene cloning: The method that is applied to create a copy of particular gene or an exact segment of DNA is termed as gene cloning. In this method firstly, DNA that need to be cloned is extracted from the specific organism. Once the DNA is obtained, it is then purified and cut into smaller pieces using restriction enzyme. The use of this enzymes create small fragments of specific DNA with cohesive ends. This cohesive ends help in attachment of this DNA with other strand of DNA which is cut using same restriction enzyme. Now the obtained fragments of DNA are integrated into plasmid. The plasmid used for this process has single restriction site and therefore when it is cleaved using same restriction enzyme as that in DNA; it generates the same cohesive ends. Now cohesive ends of segment of DNA and that of plasmid gets linked up with help of DNA ligase by the formation of phosphodiester bonds. These transformed plasmids are incorporated into bacteria that act as host organism by the process of transformation. Since different manipulated plasmids contain different section of targeted DNA, inserting it into host helps in creating a library, termed as DNA library. Finally when placed in agar medium, the identification and investigation of colonies help in detection and extraction of desired gene.
Reproductive cloning: The process adapted to create the copy of complete organism is termed as reproductive cloning. The best example of reproductive cloning is Dolly the sheep. It was the first successfully done reproductive cloning.
There are two ways for reproductive cloning; artificial embryo twinning and SCNT i.e. somatic cell nuclear transfer.
a. Artificial embryo twinning: This method mimics the natural method of cloning. The only difference being the method used in petri dish instead of mother womb. The early embryo is divided into cells and allowed to divide and develop in petri dish. Then it is injected into surrogate mother where they complete the developmental process. Since all the embryos came from same fertilized egg therefore it turns out to be identical.
b. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: This was the method used to create dolly the sheep. In this process, firstly the somatic cell (cells in the body other than sperm and egg cell) is isolated from an adult organism suppose it as A and DNA is extracted from it. Secondly, from the egg cell of another adult organism B, nucleus and DNA is completely removed. Now DNA obtained from A is fused with egg cell from sheep B. This generates a clonal embryo that is kept under the laboratory environment for some time. Now this cloned embryo is placed in the uterus of female organism also called surrogate organism. Therefore this result in birth of clone of organism A that has contributed somatic cell.
Dolly the sheep was firstly developed in this same way. If you need detailed information about this assignment or any other portion on topic of cloning; seek cloning Assignment Help from the team of assignmenthippo.com.
Therapeutic cloning: Therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning are almost similar. The only difference is the end product. The process in creation of embryo is same in both the cases resulting in development of clone. In case of reproductive cloning, the clone is allowed to develop and live whereas in case of therapeutic cloning the clone is destroyed to obtain the stem cell from it. Therefore, the clone is allowed to grow for some days and then killed to conduct research on embryonic stem cell. The advantage of this cloning is it helps in replacement of injured and diseases tissues of human body.
Advantages of cloning
- Replacement of organs.
- Helps infertile couple to have children.
- Introducing desired character in the plants.
- It is a cure for several diseases.
Disadvantages of cloning
- Possibility of introducing new diseases.
- High chances of organ rejection.
- Decrease in gene diversity.
- Unbalanced society.
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