termed *p*-*type* because positively charged particles
are primarily responsible for electrical conduction. Of course, holes
are the majority carriers, and electrons are present in minority
concentrations. This gives rise to a predominance of the second term on
the right-hand side of Equation 12.13, or

where *C* represents a temperature-independent constant and
*Eg* and *k* are the band gap energy and Boltzmann’s
constant, respectively. Since the increase of *n* and *p*
with rising temperature is so much greater than the decrease in
�*e* and �*h*, the dependence of carrier concentration on
temperature for intrinsic behavior is virtu-ally the same as for the
conductivity, or