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Require the arbitrary setting learning parameters

this available local information related to the error surface is then used to minimize the error.

As widely reported in the literature, despite their widespread use, the gradient-descent method and its variants are characterized by their slow rate of convergence and in some cases, require the arbitrary setting of learning parameters, such as learning rates, before the beginning of the optimization task [Battiti, 1992]. An inadequate choice may raise difficulties or even prevent the success of the adjustment.

In addition to that, the algorithms to be proposed in a coming section present a computational cost (memory usage and processing time) only two times higher than the cost to acquire first-order information.

© 2001 by CRC Press LLC

p (  ( ) 
k +


1 )

h:ℜ⋅ℜ p n m→ ℜ r are continuous vector-valued functions representing the

state transition mapping and output mapping, respectively. This state space representation is very general and can describe a large range of important nonlinear dynamic systems. Notice that the output equation is a static mapping.

model and presumes a fairly good knowledge of the actual system structure. This scheme of adaptation has been denoted as equation-error approach by the system identification community and is designated as teacher forcing in the neural network parlance. More recently, in view of its peculiar characteristics, Williams [Williams, 1990] coined it as the conservative approach, when related to neural control.

The second approach to construct neural network NARMA models is argued to be used in situations where the use of past input-output information together with a feedforward nonlinear mapping is not able to satisfactorily represent the actual dynamic system. A typical situation is the use of these static neural

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require the arbitrary setting learning parameters
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