104 Part II ✦ Creating and Administering an Oracle Instance and Database
The SHUTDOWN state is when the instance is not running. There is very little inter-esting about this state, but we need to shut down the database from time to time. For example, we may want to take a cold backup of all files, or we need to restart the database after changing some values in the parameter file. On startup, the parameter file will be read again, and the new values will take effect.
✦ STARTUP MOUNT starts the instance and mounts the database — that is, reads the control file.
✦ STARTUP OPEN or simply STARTUP starts the instance first, then mounts and opens the database. This is the usual form of this command.
SVRMGR> STARTUP PFILE=D:\ORADATA\ORCL\INITORCL.ORA
Some less common options are FORCE and RESTRICT.
The options can be combined if it makes sense to do so. For example, you may issue the following command when beginning to create a database:
SVRMGR> STARTUP NOMOUNT PFILE=C:\CERTDB\INITCERT.ORA
Be sure to know all of the options for the exam and for real-life situations.
Changing instance modes