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# The average current and thus the average voltage still maintained

180 CHAPTER 4 The Real World

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Before we get into the problems that parts can have, we need to introduce the concept of an equivalent circuit. It is pretty simple: to create an equivalent cir-cuit, you represent all its idiosyncrasies with combinations of perfect compo-nents. This is good for two reasons: First and most obvious, it makes it possible to model the effects of the imperfections. Second, and most important in the World of Darren, is that seeing the combinations of the parts that make up a real component makes it easier for you to apply the basic understanding of the perfect parts to grasp what the real part is doing.

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