Students studying medical science ensure a lot of stress due to the expanse of the knowledge they need to gain to undertake their career in this field. Medical schools lay great emphasis on the body systems, especially the cardiovascular systems.
Being a vital system required for the sustenance of life, often the teacher overburdens the students with various assignments on cardiac physiology. Other than having other daily tasks, students also have to study the various other subjects to complete the syllabus. Spending time on assignments often feels like stressful work, where they could read some other subject and finish other topics as well. At such times, cardiac physiology assignment writers come in very handy to the students.
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Let’s discuss some concepts about cardiac physiology!
What is physiology?
Physiology is the study of the physical aspects of the human body.
Studies under human physiology are the:
What is cardiac physiology?
Cardiac physiology studies the physical aspects of the circulatory system is studied, especially the heart. Just like muscle cells are known as myocytes, the muscles of the heart are collectively known as the myocardia.
Components of the cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system contains the chief components, namely:
The heart is the organ responsible for providing blood supply to the entire body. The heart is innervated by the autonomous nervous system which is responsible for maintaining the rhythmicity of the heart muscle or the timely contractions and relaxation of myocardia.
The myocardium undergoes rhythmic contractions and relaxations which are responsible for the heart sounds, namely “lub- dub”. This is what the doctor hears via the stethoscope to assess the proper functioning of the heart. The muscle tissue does not undergo fatigue because it is rich in mitochondria, which is the powerhouse of the cell and produces the energy supply of the cardiomyocytes, Adenosine Tri Phosphate molecules.
The function of the heart is to beat rhythmically and pump blood to the entire body. Blood is a fluid connective tissue and comprises of the formed elements and the plasma.
Erythrocytes: Red blood cells
Leukocytes: White blood cells, namely neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and monocytes.
Blood plasma contains:
Ions, nutrients, hormones, enzymes, metabolites, gases, drugs, plasma proteins, etc.
Blood vessels consist of the arteries and veins. Deoxygenated blood from the entire body is collected and carried by the veins towards the heart while oxygen-rich blood is carried from the heart to the entire body for nourishments, via the arteries. The only exceptions are the pulmonary vein and the pulmonary artery.
The pulmonary vein carries oxygen-rich blood from the pulmonary chambers to the heart, to be pumped to the entire body while the pulmonary artery carries carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart to the pulmonary tissue for gaseous exchange.
Deoxygenated blood from the superior part of the body is carried via the superior vena cava while the deoxygenated blood from the inferior part of the body is carried via the inferior vena cava to the heart. There, the deoxygenated blood is oxygenated via passing through the lungs. From there, it again comes back to the heart and from there; it is pumped to the whole body.
The electrical activity of the heart
The pacemaker cells of the heart are responsible for the rhythmic electrical activity of the heart.
They are present in the Sinoatrial node of the heart generate the action potential which travels via the Purkinje fibres to the Atrio Ventricular node and from the AV node to the bundle of His.
The four chambers of the heart contract and relax, pumping blood to the successive chambers of the heart.
The PQRST waves are generated as the electrical impulse travel across the different chambers of the heart.
Depolarization and repolarization of the right and left atria and the right and left ventricles are represented by these waves. The electrocardiogram is used to view the electrical activity of the heart.
The ECG report is then analyzed to find out any abnormalities in the heart, from which various diseases might be diagnosed.
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