As discussed by Glisson et al. (2016), the term “clinical education” refers to the training provided to the professionals which involves skills and practical oriented instruction under the guidance and supervision of experts or skilled practitioners. Effective training is given to prepare the clinical educators so that in turn they can support the organization they are employed in and also provided in order to supervise the pre-service field experiences of the interns. According to Eberhart et al. (2015), the alarming mortality and morbidity in the healthcare system sometimes concerns about the professional competency of the health care professionals. Therefore, such complex issues related to public health can only be solved through proper education so that the professionals become capable of providing safe patient care. The main objective of such clinical education program is to aid in the construction of curricula, hiring of qualified and skilled faculty and choose the learning experiences for the student who are a part of this program. Mental health is a challenging sector which deals with psychological aspects of the human behavior and the various disorders related to human psychology. Human brain is a complex entity which requires lot of effort to understand Meek et al. (2016). Thus, proper clinical training or education based on this arena is important. Health professionals need to be skilled and effective while treating mental patients while the general public should also be aware of the psychological aspects of human beings and its consequences. This report will highlight the essence of a mental health educational program that is specific for the nursing professionals and will also demonstrate the various theories related to the clinical education while developing the clinical education program (Lorig et al., 2014).
As stated by Glisson et al. (2016), every human being experiences significant stresses in their lives due to education, relationship, work pressure, biological changes and societal disturbances. Evidences reflect the fact that several individuals show behavioral and academic difficulties and cannot cope up with the stress that they encounter. For example, almost one out every five children and adolescents face emotional and behavioral disorder at some point in their young age, regardless of their location, age and socioeconomic background. Such situation can be a significant cause of chronic mental condition. This should be properly addressed by the health care professionals so that the clinical treatment can be effective rather than deterioration of the psychological condition due to incompetency in the clinical field. As discussed by Meek et al. (2016), a model framework for a comprehensive approach towards mental health prevention, promotion and treatment is required supported by evidence based study. Thus, clinical education developed for the nursing professionals in the field of mental health can be a successful way of effectively treating the patients with psychological disorders (Beronio et al., 2014).
The main purpose of this mental health program is to strengthen the field of clinical field and competencies of the nursing students. According to Zainal et al. (2013), mental health is the main cause of long term work incapability as well as the reason for sickness absence. Studies reveal the fact that the impacts productivity, employee morale and organizational service and quality (Beronio et al., 2014). Therefore, this educational program would focus on understanding of the various types, reasons and consequences of mental health not only to treat the patient but also to understand the mental condition among employees. As stated by Slade et al. (2014), the learner group who are targeted for this program would be the nursing professionals. The reason for selecting them as the learners is that nurses undergo a lot of pressure during their working hours. Their personal problems combine with the health complications of the patients. This might cause mental disturbances such as burn outs or might also affect the clinical treatment provided to the patients. Thus, an educational program based on mental health might provide them the knowledge and understanding of coping with extreme situations.
The main focus of this program will be as follows:
The program would be an environment centered program which will strive to enhance the ability of the educator, nurses and also other support staff so that they can deal with specific areas such as emotional and behavioral stress which they encounter in every day. The program would involve the nursing professionals and it will be managed and hosted by the management team of the health care sector for the awareness presentation. The partners would involve clinicians, mental and other social agency representatives. The guiding standards constructed for this program would involve two separate standards. The program standard would involve:
For this program the educator required would be specific for the nursing professionals. Nurse educators are licensed registered nurses. According to Beronio et al. (2014), the educators would be responsible for developing and mental instituting curricula which meet the need of the demand of the mental health program. The educators should play an important role in the supervision of the nursing students. The educator should be involved in clinical teaching in accordance with the curriculum designed. They should use effective tools and style of teaching in order to inculcate the good habits and attributes in the students and also assess and evaluate their learning outcomes successfully (Elliott et al., 2012).
The program would be delivered through four basic steps. The first step would involve arrangement of resources which involves human resources as well as tools and other resources to complete the program. Secondly, the learning process would consist of the effective learning style and methods. Thirdly, assessment and evaluation of the students would be done as a continuation of the learning process. Lastly, follow-up involving the de-briefing would be done in order to encourage the students to incorporate the practice in their learning (Beronio et al., 2014).
The first step would involve the arrangement of the resources. As stated by Kieckhefer et al. (2014), the health care organize would first plan for the program involving a selected group of members. This group would be responsible for various functions related to the program starting from arrangement of local and communal agencies to participate and provide help in the program. The various inanimate resources including the tools and apparatus required for the learning process would be planned and arranged. The whole program would be designed and divided into specific time duration (Caplan, 2013).
The second step of the program delivery would be the most significant part of the program dealing with education delivery to the nursing student by the educators. As stated by Pietrzak et al., (2015), the learning style would involve two different styles. The first one is the visual learning style and the second style is referred to as kinesthetic style. The whole learning process would be divided into four days education program. In the first two days visual presentation would be provided by the educator along with the explanation and demonstration of mental health issues. The presentation would involve stigma and impact of mental health in the lives of the people; provide an overview of mental health and its consequences in the life of the health professionals and how to cope up with the situations. As discussed by Rogers & Pilgrim (2014), the whole earning process for the first two days would be conducted within the training room s of the clinical settings. According to Kieckhefer et al. (2014), the learning process would also involve interactive sessions between the educators and the students. The next two days of the education program would consist of the kinesthetic style of learning where the theoretical knowledge would get a shape through practical applications. The students during these two days would get the opportunity to implement their evidence based knowledge into the practical field. According to Meek et al. (2016), the nursing students would get access to the patient directly and they can incorporate their patient centered care and realize the mental condition of the various patients and their own psychological condition dealing with the patient. Moreover, the practical learning would help them to learn the mode of coping with various situations (World Health Organization, 2016).
The third step, involves the assessment and evaluation of the students where the educators would be able to understand the level of knowledge and skill gathered by the learners. As discussed by Noritomi et al. (2014), assessment not only gives an idea of the learning status of the student but also opens an opportunity to rectify the mistakes of the student. In this program the assessment of the students will be done based on examinations conducted after the completion of the learning delivery through oral, written and practical assessment. The evaluation would be based on the measurement outcome of the whole program. The evaluation would involve observation of the student’s performance. Additional to this the evaluation process would involve the questionnaire that would help to realize the success or effectiveness of the educational program conducted (Kieckhefer et al., 2014).
Although evaluation to measure the program’s effectiveness is a part of the follow-up session of the program, debriefing would be done in order to close the presentation given by the educators to encourage and motivate the students to take up the nursing practice as their profession. Addition to this the follow-up session would provide extra information to the nurse students regarding the mental health clinical practices. This method of program delivery was selected in order to encourage the amalgamation of the theoretical knowledge with the practical applications (Mertens, 2014).
One of the theories based on learning is andragogy theory which is also known as the adult learning theory, was developed by Malcolm Shepherd Knowles, which is reviewed on its assumptions, principles and practices. As discussed by Posavac (2015), this theory relates to the psychological need of an individual that a person attends through self-directed and self-concept to treat or capable of coping with any severe situation. Thus, it is important during the conduction of the education program the nursing student should learn through their self interest and concept. Another theory that alludes the mental action of human beings is the Cognitive theory which refers to the application of a subjective way to deal with learning and educating, we concentrate on the understanding of data and ideas (World Health Organization, 2016). Since Cognitive theory, learning depends on an individual’s emotion and behavior and so relates to all forms of meaningful, involving thinking, memory, comprehension, motivation, perception and psycholinguistics. It is a more practical form of approach and requires an imaginative perception of the student (Bonder & Martin, 2013).
Accorrding to Baker & Robinson (2014), in this education program the teaching method that would be applied is the “SMART approach” which is an effectual learning approach. In this particular educational training program, SMART approach would be included when the student’s will be interviewed of for the selection procedure. Firstly, consideration of the nurse’s complications to identify an objective would be important. Second of all, the measure would engage the educator’s communication with the student, regarding feedback and aiding him or her to understand his sections of development and clinical education practice. Third of all, the objective of the interview is achievable through a set of questionnaire that would assist to be familiar with the student’s strength and weakness. The communication during the process of interview is pertinent since the interview is carried out to get a memo of the first needs of the learning process. The time duration of the interview would be an hour (Latham et al., 2014).
The teaching method that would be incorporated in this program would consist of demonstration, audiovisual presentation, lecture method discussion and practical method. These methods would help the students to gather theoretical knowledge, practical demonstration, visual learning and also application of their knowledge in the practical field. As discussed by (Latham et al., 2014), the teaching method would be further sub-divided into the solo and group work along with discussion and question answer rounds. Such implications can help the nursing students to get motivated, apply group effort and understand the issues properly. Assessment or examination plays another important part in the field of learning. As stated by Neisser (2014), assessment is a technique of understanding the mentee’s capability and understanding level. In clinical setup assessment has high significance, since the health care sector deals with the life of human beings. Any mistake can cause major health related complications. The assessment process would involve written, oral and practical examination that can be an effective mode of judging the students. Accordingly, feedback can be provided to them which would encourage them to take up the nursing practice efficiently (Schmeck, 2013).
As discussed by Neisser (2014), promotion of psychological competence helps to provide a psychological support to the patients so it very crucial for nurse to provide a psychological support to the patient by listening the problems they are having. In the places where mental health care has not been brought in the focus of attention must be renovated and a mental health care unit should be established there the nurses who are taking the responsibilities of care the mental patient should always keep their mind in a peace otherwise it will become very tough to handle the patient because to provide competence to the mental patient is not a easy job. As discussed by Ozuah (2016), the nurses have to understand the feeling, emotions, expectation, etc. of the patient. To understand all this they have to consider them in the place of the patient. Some time the family members of the patient also gets fed up of the patient at that it is the duty of the nurse to encourage them, make them believe that there is still the patient could be get better if we all try our level best to make him better. A thoughtful evaluation along with an outcome is very necessary for every program. This not only determines the effectiveness of the a particular program but also tells that the programs which are already present whether they are effective or not and also clarifies what reformative measures should taken into consideration to make the programs effective. If someone is designing a mental health program then the study of evaluative outcome should be design at the same time. Along with the program the environment of the health care unit like knowledge, practices, and skills should also be designed in such a manner that it should promote the effectiveness of the intervention planned. According to Neisser (2014), an efficient approach to measure the outcomes of a mental health program can be achieved by arranging a demonstration from the skilled person for the nurses, professional, and the community member. After that the evaluation must be implemented then only a positive outcome can be achieved. After the implementation of the program again the initial planning team must move forward for meeting to discuss whether they have achieved the targeted goals or not. If not then also have to discuss what should be there next reformative measure to fulfill their targeted goal. As discussed by Schmeck (2013), it is not possible for every community to design a well planned outcome. However it is quite possible to collect the information that will help in the evaluation of the effectiveness of the program. The evaluation should be like that whether the nurses, patients, the family members, other related person, doctors are satisfied or not, whether the program is up to date to the queries, testimonials, criticism of the peoples involved in the program. This entire thing should be taken into consideration and records of the implementation should be kept carefully and safely for a later review (Schmeck, 2013).
Clinical education is an effective way of professional practicing in the field of health care. Effective training is given to prepare the clinical educators so that in turn they can support the organization they are employed in and also provided in order to supervise the pre-service field experiences of the interns. A model framework for a comprehensive approach towards mental health prevention, promotion and treatment is required supported by evidence based study. Thus, clinical education developed for the nursing professionals in the field of mental health can be a successful way of effectively treating the patients with psychological disorders. Such educations help the nursing professionals to cope up with their professional and personal stress. The program that would be conducted would compromise of certain policies and standard regarding the conduction of the teaching program based on the designed curriculum. The program would be an environment centered program which will strive to enhance the ability of the educator, nurses and also other support staff so that they can deal with specific areas such as emotional and behavioral stress which they encounter in every day. The program would involve several learning and teaching styles to encourage the students to incorporate their practice into their professional practice. Thus, such a clinical learning program would motivate the students to understand mental health of the patient and their own in the work place.
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