Assessment 1 Answer Questions
The concepts of cultural awareness, cultural safety and cultural competence are important in the context of a diverse workplace. Explain what these concepts are and how they impact on the different work roles.
Cultural safety is a concept relating to the fact that for a workplace to be appropriately inclusive, people (therapists, clients and other stakeholders) must believe that their culture and beliefs will be respected and that the workplace will be free from discrimination and any actions that disadvantage people because of difference. Organisations are responsible for developing and sustaining health care services that are free from discrimination and that are delivered in a manner that shows respect for clients.Cultural competence refers to the ability of people working in organisations to build relationships (with therapists, clients or other stakeholders) that are based on thePage 2 of 12foundations of understanding each other’s expectations, preferences and attitudes. Cultural confidence is built on working with others to increase knowledge, build understanding and learn how to accommodate difference. Underlying cultural competence are the principles of trust, respect for diversity, equity, fairness, and social justice.This concept will impact on all work roles as they relate to the idea of acceptance of diversity, understanding of the value of diversity and the provision of workplace where equity and fairness apply equally to all.Where staff are culturally aware and where cultural safety and cultural competence are accepted, there is a high likelihood that the benefits of diversity will impact on both staff and clients..
Explain diversity and what respect for diversity in the workplace means.
Diversity in the work means understanding that each individual is unique and has the right to be different. Diversity or difference can be based on the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies.Respect for diversity involves recognition and acceptance of the different qualities, skills, qualifications, experiences, needs, preferences and attitudes of people—whether they are work colleagues, clients, clients’ families or others.
Community attitudes and structures of culture, language and workplace policies influence people and groups and will all have an impact on community services work. Briefly explain the impact of each of these things. If necessary, conduct independent research.
Recommended websites for research are:
Community attitudes change over time. As changes occur so must the attitudes of individuals who wish to work and interact with the community. Over time a lot of the prejudices and stereotyping within Western communities has moderated. Legislation has been developed to ensure fairness, equity, lack of discrimination and support for human rights. People working in community service organisations need to be aware of the current expectations of society and the community within which they work and to ensure that their attitudes and behaviours change accordingly.With the influx into Australia of migrants and refugees, and when providing services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, language can be a barrier as many of these people will have different first languages. Communication and communication procedures will need to be modified to accommodate their needs and, where necessary, translators or community elders might be asked to assist the communication process.Workplace policies also need to change and adapt over time. Many workplace policies will be grounded in legislation. To ensure that workplace policies are appropriate, relevant to the organisation and will achieve appropriate outcomes, it is necessary to constantly review policies, to ensure that they are in line with the appropriate legislation and that they fit with the values, attitudes and expectations of the community within which the organisation works and with the larger society..
Explain how diverse political, social, economic and cultural factors impact on work and the lives of people in society.
Within any society there are groups of people who hold different political views and have quite different political expectations. In a democratic society we elect our representatives. This assumes that the majority of people hold similar views; however, it also acknowledges the fact that individuals will have different political views and expectations. Each elected government will make changes that impact on work and these changes will be based on their perception of what society needs and of what will benefit the people living in Australia. Businesses and therapists need to adapt to changes in legislation, government policies, programs, and funding arrangements.Social attitudes change constantly. New scientific, medical and health research contributes to changes in behaviour and in belief structures, for example sustainability issues, climate warming, focus on healthy eating and the need to exercise, focus on prevention of sun exposure cancers, realisation that diversity is important and necessary etc. As research provides us with more and more knowledge our attitudes, behaviours and beliefs shift. In particular, the concepts of tolerance and inclusivity are more oftenarticulated and more likely to be accepted than previously. Community services organisations in particular need to be aware of this and might, for instance, organise health and fitness programs available for a range of clients of different ages and with different abilities, where previously the assumption might have been made that only younger people will participate in fitness programs.The economic climate will have a strong influence on the type of service required by clients, on their ability to access the services and on client needs. For example, in times of economic stress community service organisations will be faced by a greater number of clients needing financial advice or assistance, help with job search, or treatment for depression and anxiety.Cultural differences impact on work and life in so far as the increasing number of migrant and refugee people in Australia contributes, and has done since the 1940s and 50s, to the richness of mainstream Australian culture. The strong culture of our Indigenous populations and those of our migrant populations have contributed to the diverse range of arts and crafts, food styles and food varieties, literature, spiritual affiliations, music, languages etc. that now make up part of what we perceive as of our normal culture. This diversity makes positive contributions to the work, social and economic lives of everybody. There are a number of specific areas of diversity, which characteristics must be taken into consideration concerning legislative compliance and support for human rights. Some of these include: cultures and subcultures race, ethnicity, nationality disability religious or spiritual beliefs and affiliations gender, including transgender generational differences in characteristics sexual orientation/ sexual identity—lesbian, gay, bisexual, heterosexual age—generational differences
Conduct independent research to determine the legal and ethical factors (international, national, state, territory and local) that need to be considered regarding to discrimination, human rights and rights and responsibilities of workers, employers and clients. When researching, consider the relationship between human needs and human rights and the frameworks, approaches and instruments used in the workplace.
Explain the impact of these factors on individual workers and explain the likely consequences of:
Recommended websites for research are:
Organisations will have policies and procedures relating to discrimination, harassment, equal employment opportunity and social justice.Policies and procedures will be grounded in relevant legislation. From the appropriate legislation, organisational policies and procedures will be developed. All staff must comply with legislation and with organisational policies and procedures.Contents of policies and procedures, and compliance requirements should be communicated to staff during induction, during in-house training programs and at meetings. In the community services sector there are industry-based code of ethics / codes of practice and individual organisations will also have their own codes of ethics. A code of ethics is not enforceable by law but it does provide a set of guidelines regarding the behaviour expected of all employees. These behavioural expectations relate to things like honesty, professionalism, currency of qualifications etc. and expectations with regard to diversity and inclusivity.Breaches of legislation or responsibilities not being carried out can result in litigation, and loss of a job. A code of ethics is not enforceable by law; however, a breach of the code of ethics can result in job loss.The Universal Declaration of Human Rights supports the ideology that ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.’ It sets out a number of Articles, which people should comply with if they are to uphold the philosophies of equality and human rights for all. It refers to human, economic, social, cultural and political rights that support physical integrity, personal liberty and security, procedural fairness, non-discrimination, autonomous equality, privacy, freedom of religion and expression, the right of marriage, sanctions against inciting hatred, consensual sexual activity, the rights that all people have, to enjoy their own culture, religion and language etc. Human Rights are inalienable, basic freedoms and protections to which all people are entitled.Not supporting client, Therapist and employer rights and responsibilities in the workplace and the failure to meet these obligations may not only cause personal suffering and financial losses, but may also result in legal action.Employers have an obligation to provide a work environment free from hazards and to ensure the health and safety of themselves, their Therapists and other people affected by the workplace. They meet this obligation by complying with the relevant workplace health and safety regulations that govern their type of business and by following the Advisory Standard or adopting an equally effective way of managing exposure to risks. Employers who do not meet their obligations under the Act may face severe penalties (fines, imprisonment, lawsuits).Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) legislation is intended to ensure that the principle of merit is applied fairly in the workplace. Barriers that could create or support inequality should be identified and removed.Anti-discrimination legislation is intended to ensure that people are not unfairly disadvantaged due to appearance, gender, value, beliefs, disability, sexual preference, marital or parental status, nationality, spiritual affiliation, inclusion in a minority group, physical or mental impairment etc.
There are a number of specific areas of diversity, the characteristics of which must be taken into consideration with regard to legislative compliance and support for human rights. List 7 of the key areas of diversity.
cultures and subcultures race, ethnicity, nationality disability religious or spiritual beliefs and affiliations gender, including transgender generational differences in characteristics sexual orientation/ sexual identity—lesbian, gay, bisexual, heterosexual age—generational differences
Australia’s first people are the Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people. Often, due to the cultural divide, and sometimes to the ability of services to reach remote people, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are not able to make good use of community service offerings.
To provide appropriate services it is necessary for organisations and their staff to be aware of:
Conduct independent research and provide a brief explanation of historical issues, current issues and the way in which many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people engage with services.
Recommended websites for research are:
Historical conditions are those relating to what the Indigenous people consider invasion, and to loss of country and culture. Indigenous people have been subject to discrimination and disenfranchisement and, as a group, exhibit feelings of grief and loss (trauma)—this takes into consideration land, language, spirituality, stolen generations etc.Deaths in custody, land rights, economic disadvantage, poor levels of education / literacy, health and life expectancy are all current issues that impact on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and on the way in which these people perceive and interact with mainstream systems and structures.Cultural differences manifest in spirituality, language, perceptions, values and expectations, customs, lifestyle choices, family kin or skin relationships, and continuing disadvantages.Assessing the current and potential impact of cultural issues on the design and application of service programs will require observation, consultation and close collaboration with respected elders and with the communities for whom the services are intended. Consultation with and involvement of community members in development processes and in the design of particular service applications will guide strategic planning to ensure a fit with Indigenous needs.Indigenous people are much more likely to take advantage of or to make use of, services which have been developed with their particular needs in mind and which have been part of a collaborative and consultative process. They are more likely to participate in services when they feel at least a degree of ownership. Staffing services with Indigenous employees is also more likely to encourage acceptance by the people for whom the service is intended.Indigenous people do not access health / community services in the same way or in the same numbers as mainstream Australians. Although many people are eligible they choose not to access services (this was noted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008 and still occurs). By ensuring a cultural fit and by utilising the input of Indigenous people it is hoped there will be a greater uptake of services. By providing suitable training for Indigenous people, it is hoped that they will find work in organisations that offer health and community service facilities for Indigenous people.
Service organisations must provide employment opportunities and services for the potential needs of marginalised groups. List 3 groups that could come under the heading of marginalised groups.
What holds an organisation and its team together is a shared field of meaning – a shared set of values, norms and beliefs that surround a shared mission – coherence and direction. This is a workplace culture, which is different from the personal cultural and personal expectations of individual therapists.
Explain how language and culture interpreters and imagery could help service organisations embrace and respond to diversity.
While conducting training, it is important to make the training relevant and practical. Ask staff to share their experiences and invite community leaders from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds to share their stories and perspective. Do not be afraid to hire an interpreter. It is also a good idea to train staff in how to use an interpreter. It is not intuitive to stop speaking after every point for someone to translate. Speakers who do not have training in how to work with interpreters often speak without a break for too long and some of their information can be lost.Where there is a language barrier, there are effective strategies that could assist with the communication process such as using universal signs, symbols and icons, using pictures or imagery, using body language or exaggerating gestures, using a translator or translating service, and learning the basics of another language.Effective visual imagery is useful when communicating information to ethnic groups. There are a number of universal imagery or colours used within the workplace. Visual imagery is very effective in communicating a key message as signs, icons and symbols are used universally across cultures and location. This means that messages are being communicated consistently. Examples include: ‘-‘ or ‘x’ can mean no, stop, minimise or close ‘+’ or the up arrow refers to add or upwards Red can symbolise danger, stop or love Green can represent go, fresh, recycle Hearts represent love Clocks represent time Envelopes represent email or messages
Australian society is made up of diverse communities and/or social groups. Explain briefly how these diverse groups influenced and changed Australian society.
It is fair to say that the influence of the diverse people and cultures that came to Australia, originally as part of a post war mass migration, has made Australians, in general, less insular and isolated. It has widened experiences and attitudes generally. Ongoing European and Asian migration has brought richness to the culture of what is, essentially, a young country. This richness relates to art, food, lifestyle, culture, spirituality, medicine, language, customs, artefacts etc.
Explain how diversity practices and experiences impact on personal behaviour, interpersonal relationships, perceptions and the social expectations of others in the workplace.
We all have personal values, beliefs, social and cultural perspectives that develop throughout the course of a lifetime.To provide a service that meets the needs of target groups, therapists need to be aware of their personal values, social and cultural perspectives and their own biases. They must be prepared to adopt the professional values of the industry, and expect that everyone may not be the same as they are. They must learn to accept, value and work with diversity..
Assessment 2 Role play
You are required to take 3 role plays with your clients (assessor) in the simulated workplace environment. During the role play, you must demonstrate the following communication skills and understanding of diversity.
Scenario 1: You are the manager of a busy massage business which employs one fulltime massage therapist and four part-time massage therapists. One of your part-time employees (your assessor) informs you that the fulltime massage therapist, Sarah, has made a number of negative comments about her English speaking skills and the food she brings to work.
The part-time employee, Pashmina, is from Southern India, speaks Tamil as her first language, has lived in Australia for two years, and started learning English just one year before she arrived in the country. She doesn’t eat at the shopping centre like many of the other employees, but brings her own meals to work and eats in the staff room. She tells you that she realises her food smells strongly of spices and that her English skills are not as good as the other employees, but she doesn’t understand why Sarah speaks to her so rudely about her food and the way she speaks English.
Scenario 2: You have recently started a new role as a massage therapist at a local massage business owned and operated by a Greek couple who have lived in Australia for many years. The business employed seven part-time employees when you started work there one month ago, but three employees quit in the last week, seemingly due the way the owners communicate with the staff.
The owners’ English skills are very good, but they constantly speak Greek with each other in the presence of the employees, and when speaking to employees they often stop mid-conversation and start speaking together very loudly in Greek. You get the impression that they are complaining and/or gossiping about the staff member they are talking to at the time.
One of the owners (your assessor) has called you into the office to ask you what you know about the other employees quitting.
Scenario 3: You are the evening supervisor at a local massage business which employs three massage therapists for the evening shift. Recently, you have received several complaints from customers about one of your employees, Jane (your assessor), who has recently migrated from China. The three complaints are similar in nature and all relate to Jane not following client instructions. For example, one of the clients told Jane that she was applying too much pressure several times but Jane didn’t reduce the pressure, in fact, she increased it until the client raised her voice and Jane finally got the message.
Jane’s English skills are not good and she often has trouble communicating with clients and colleagues, including yourself. However, she is an excellent massage therapist, she is very caring, polite and welcoming, and a diligent employee who always arrives at work on time.
Your assessor will use the checklist below to assess:
Role Play 1-3: Did the student
Lead a topic actively, engaged team members, and all topics were covered Showed ability to work inclusively
Reflected on own perspectives include social and cultural biases, own limitations in self and social awareness. Understanding of others and ways to improve own self and social awareness.
Displayed appreciation for diversity and inclusiveness, and their benefits
Contribute to the development of work place and professional relationship as well as Value, respect diversity and inclusiveness in workplace
Provided ways to ensure work environment is safe for all
Showed ability to communicate with people from diverse backgrounds and situations
Respect for diversity in communication, verbal and non-verbal communication constructively to establish, develop and maintain effective relationships, mutual trust and confidence
Where a language barrier exists, use effective strategies to communicate in the most efficient way possible or seek assistance from interpreters or other persons according to communication needs
Identify issues that may cause communication misunderstandings or other difficulties and where difficulties or misunderstandings occur, consider the impact of social and cultural diversity as a source. Responded appropriately
Make an effort to sensitively resolve differences, taking account of diversity considerations and address any difficulties with appropriate people and seek assistance when required
Encouraged feedback and participation of other members to generate ideas and offer a solution as a team.
Communication was clear and easy to understand. Used appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication effectively. Implemented active listening skills
Raised right questions to lead discussions
Discussed the characteristics of different diversities in the 3 scenarios
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