New York Answers | Assignmenthippo Assessment Answer


Applying theory to research

There has forever been a relationship between research and theory in science. Although both are complementary to one another, many a times both are regarded as an alternate for one another. The theory is founded on the research that additionally support research. Theories that don’t care about the research are merely the unproven ideas and are biased. Therefore, true science at all times consists of both theory and empirical, controlled research. The individual constituents of Krathwohl’s chain of reasoning vitally examine the relationship of the research and theory. In this study, the case of  “New York's smoke-free regulations” and its consequences on the sales and employment in the hospitality sector is studied (Charles, 2006).

The requirement for research on ‘Smoke free regulations’ in the NY city is extremely significant, as there is a grave predicament in the common view that smoke free directives will result in diminish in sales as well as employment in the hospitality-sector. But, the real fact is that neither the employment, nor the sales are hurt when smoke-free directives are put.

Before carrying out a research, it is of extreme significance to evaluate the prior work, and dispense what is the goal of the research. This study shows that the prior claims that the smoke will be excluded, and the environment will be made vigorous look as a tough measure by the federal and state governments which will cost the hospitality market.

Prior Research

The prior researches have evidently revealed that hospitality workers experience considerable coverage to secondhand smoke which augments the danger of lung cancer. Also, there have been researches that have shown that following the execution of the smoke free hospitality, the instances of respiratory problems have reduced sharply in the hospitality employees. Another empirical study is that of the year 2002, according to which 231 jurisdictions in the US have directed smoke-free restaurants or worksites, comprising the whole states of Delaware and California (Ghauri, 2002). The position of local hospitality-industry financial system has been researched and examined by both objective and subjective means. Objective processes mostly comprise examining employment levels while subjective processes comprise as restaurant owners' or customers' reports on modifications in business previous to and after the execution of the smoke free directives. These studies have revealed that on the whole there is no diminish in the local hospitality-industry financial system. Although, the claims made by tourist agencies and big organizations have frequently become obstructions for governments to put into practice the some smoke free directions. Thus, although the existing research demonstrates that the avers of the hospitality sector are wrong, there is still necessitate for a wider study on the topic (Hyland, 2003).

In this  research, alterations in employment and taxable sales in hotels of 5 nations in the New York State, which have put into practice smoke-free dining directives have been analyzed. The main self-sufficient variable in our study is the attendance/nonattendance of smoke-free directives.

Parameters of study

Mostly 5 parameters are examined in this study and they are -

  • The division of retail sales from drinking and eating places
  • Per-capita hotel employment
  • Per-capita chargeable sales from drinking and eating organizations
  • Per-capita taxable sales from hotels
  • Per-capita restaurant employment

Both prior to and after the execution of the smoke free regulation the circumstances of the local hospitality-industry financial system is examined (Mark, 2012). Also, in order to make the research more quantitative a variety of statistical instruments are utilized. It consists linear-regression model which was made to appraise the height of every result as a role of 4 autonomous variables, that is, the attendance of the smoke-free season, time and unemployment rate. The year of employment rate is also studied and statistics are taken from NYSDOL. The result of economic trend is examined both ways by  contrasting drinking and eating sales with the retail sales in a given nation and by contrasting sales in the same nation over time and employment, time and season are taken into consideration (Michael, 2014).

The amount of hotels is reduced a little. The positive drift is seen in the employment and sales. Per-capita hotel employment augmented in three nations and diminished in two others.

The account and the empirical study carried out here is fairly clear and goes to the line of research. All the nations have demonstrated an immense propensity with no or positive association amid the execution of the smoke free agreement and employment. This also obviously expends the fact that other nations should start putting into practice the smoke free directives. Thus, the purpose of the study is obviously attained, though if the data will be examined further more advantage from the smoke free directives will come out. The 5 variables referred to above evidently have a no or positive effect from the smoke free directives.

The research also asserts to be technical, as most of the constraints are followed correctly, like, going by earlier researches, defining the variables and genuine data are collected from a variety of sources to draw the final (Easterby-Smith, 2008).

Therefore, the principle now is backed by observable research data. All through these studies the data demonstrates that the smoke-free directives are good for the business. The study carried out here goes with the precise rule and it evidently frames out the technical standards (Fiske, 2004).

This paramount thing about the study is that it also reflects on a variety of other things. A lot of different factors come into sight to have an effect on the hospitality sector, consisting the universal financial environment and secular alterations in dining and travel actions. Policymakers should not shun from putting into practice smoke-free regulations for the reason of panic of lost business. In its place, lawmakers should pass smoke-free directives for the reason that they lessen patrons' and workers' experience to secondhand smoke. Managers must welcome the prospect to defend the well being of their patrons and employees by getting smoke-free devoid of the dreads of lost revenue or patronage (Casse, 2011).

Quality of the study

The study  is of good quality, it takes care of a variety of other factors and also the probable sources. Also, the sample size is fairly big which makes the account more clear. The data demonstrated here is pretty good and the things are revealed adequately, so the general quality is good. Although in the study frequently clear margin is not drawn amid diverse factors, like, hypothesis, purpose and methodology (Schwab, 2009).

Therefore, the methodology and the data should more effortlessly understood if the data would be presented in another way. Also, the other probable factors are not considered in detail so the study is not very vivid.


The result of smoke free directives generally has no unpleasant effect on the hospitality sector and employment. Therefore, other sectors should also start utilizing free smoke directives, as it only assists to save the wellbeing of the populace. It will also assist to save the environment.

The companies are in profit as they have to shell out less taxes as they are producing less harmful gases. Thus, Per-capita taxable sales from drinking and eating businesses has augmented piercingly which will improve the financial system in the long term and the economy will become strong.


Casse, C. (2011). Challenges and Controversies in Management Research.New York: Routledge.

Charles, J. (2010) Chapter 32: Applying Theories to Research: The Interplay of Theory and Research in Science

Available on: Retrieved on 25 January, 2016

Easterby-Smith, M (2008). Management Research (3rd edn). London : Sage.                  

Fiske, S. (2004). Mine the gap: In praise of informal sources of formal theory. Personality and Social Psychology Review 8 (2004). 132–137.

Ghauri, P. (2002), Research Methods in Business Studies : A Practical Guide (2nd edition), London:

Hyland, A. (2003), New York's smoke-free regulations: Effects on employment and sales in the hospitality industry, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 9-16.

Mark, N. (2012) Research Methods for Business Students sixth edition. Harlow, England, Pearson Education, Inc.

Michael, S. (2014), The Exposition of Artistic Research: Publishing Art in Academia, Leiden: Leiden University Press.

Schwab, M. (2009). Draft Proposal. Journal for Artistic Research. Bern University of the Arts.

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